Take-Two Principle

This is an important capacity strengthening strategy for CHOICE that is very much linked to learning by doing. With the take-two principle CHOICE ensures that we always send at least two advocates to every advocacy event or training, one experienced and one inexperienced, to ensure a continuous transfer of knowledge and skills. The inexperienced advocate is not only guided and supported by their more experienced mentor, but they also have the opportunity to learn on-the-job and develop key skills by actually doing the activity themselves.


In the CHOICE Flower of Participation, tokenism is when young people seem to have a voice, but in reality they have little to no choice in what they do or how they get involved; they are literally used as a token. CHOICE does not consider this to be a meaningful form of participation.


Transgender is an adjective to describe a person whose gender identity is not completely the same as the gender ascribed to their anatomical sex. A transgender person may or may not experience social and/or bodily dysphoria and may or may not desire to alter their bodies through gender confirming surgeries and/or HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy). Changing your body is not a criterion to be trans-identified and neither is your gender expression - since gender identity and gender expression can be separate.


The irrational fear of, discrimination against, and/or hatred towards transgender people and those who are gender variant, and/or the inability to deal with gender ambiguity.

Treaty Monitoring Bodies

Treaty-Monitoring Bodies are committees of independent experts who monitor the implementation of international human rights treaties, for example, the Committee on the Rights of the Child monitors the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and its optional protocols (additions to the convention). States which are signatory to these treaties are asked to submit reports every so many years detailing their progress towards implementation of the specific convention. At the same time, civil society is also given the opportunity to submit ‘shadow’ or ‘parallel’ reports in which they make their own assessment of their country’s progress. During the review process, the monitoring body takes all of this information into account and provides a list of concerns and specific recommendations to the state in the form of ‘Concluding Observations’.  Ideally, states should implement the recommendations they receive, however, unlike the treaty they have ratified these observations are not legally binding. Civil society can and should play an important role in monitoring and advocating with their government to ensure they implement these concluding observations.

For treaties which have a complaints mechanism like the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the monitoring bodies may also launch an investigation into cases of ‘grave and/or systematic violations’ of the rights protected by the treaty.