The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) also sometimes referred to simply as "Cairo 1994" or "Cairo", took place in Cairo, Egypt in 1994. The conference focused on population issues, including immigration, infant mortality, birth control, family planning, education and unsafe abortion. The conference delegates achieved consensus on the following four goals which are enshrined in the ICPD Programme of Action (PoA): (1) universal education, (2) reduction of infant and child mortality, (3) reduction of maternal mortality, and (4) access to reproductive and sexual health services including family planning. The ICPD PoA is the steering document for the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

The Commission on Population and Development (CPD) helps the United Nations Economic and Social Council (UN ECOSOC) to monitor, review, and assess the implementation of the ICPD PoA at the national, regional, and international level and advises ECOSOC on this progress. The CPD also hosts a yearly event at UN  headquarters in New York where delegates from around the world come together to discuss key thematic issues related to implementation of the ICPD PoA, and to negotiate a series of action-oriented outcome documents in the form of agreed conclusions and resolutions based on one of the issues highlighted in the PoA.