The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) was adopted alongside the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) in 1966, after the decision was made to separate human rights into two categories: (i) civil and political rights, and (ii) economic, social and cultural rights. The ICCPR addresses civil and political rights, including the right to life, freedom from religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights, and the right to due process and a fair trial. It is part of the International Bill of Human Rights along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

The ICCPR is a legally binding document, and compliance to the convention is monitored by the United Nations Human Rights Committee. Countries that have ratified the ICCPR are expected to submit periodic reports detailing the situation of children’s rights in the country, as well as progress made towards the local implementation of the ICCPR.