The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a process set up by the United Nation’s (UN) Human Rights Council (HRC) which reviews the entire human rights record of all 193 UN Member States every four and a half years. It is also the only monitoring process where UN Member States may ask questions or make recommendations to each other, and for this reason it is a unique and important opportunity for advocacy.

Each state is reviewed on the obligations under: (1) the Charter of the United Nations, (2) the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, (3) Human Rights instruments which a State is party to, for example, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), etc., (4) voluntary pledges and commitments made by States, and (5) applicable international humanitarian law. The UPR is intended to complement the work of other human rights mechanisms, including the UN Treaty Monitoring Bodies.