An informed decision is a decision that is made when someone has access to all of the relevant facts and information at hand. CHOICE advocates for young people’s right to access scientifically accurate, up-to-date, and comprehensive information surrounding their Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR), so that young people are able to make up their own minds and make informed decisions surrounding their SRHR.
In the CHOICE Flower of Participation this is a situation where young people both initiate and execute a program or project. Adults are only involved in a supporting role. This is a considered a form of meaningful youth participation.
In the CHOICE Flower of Participation this is a situation where projects or programs are initiated by adults, but decisions are shared with young people. This is considered a form of meaningful youth participation.
In the CHOICE Flower of Participation this is a situation where programs or projects are initiated by young people while decisions are shared equally between adults and young people. These projects are supportive and motivational for young people, while, at the same time, young people can benefit from the experience and expertise of adults. This is considered a form of meaningful youth participation.
The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) also sometimes referred to simply as "Cairo 1994" or "Cairo", took place in Cairo, Egypt in 1994. The conference focused on population issues, including immigration, infant mortality, birth control, family planning, education, unsafe abortion. The conference delegates achieved consensus on the following four goals which are enshrined in the ICPD Programme of Action (PoA): (1) universal education, (2) reduction of infant and child mortality, (3) reduction of maternal mortality, and (4) access to reproductive and sexual health services including family planning. The ICPD PoA is the steering document for the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).
The Commission on Population and Development (CPD) helps the United Nations Economic and Social Council (UN ECOSOC) to monitor, review, and assess the implementation of the ICPD PoA at the national, regional, and international level and advises ECOSOC on this progress. The CPD also hosts a yearly event at UN headquarters in New York where delegates from around the world come together to discuss key thematic issues related to implementation of the ICPD PoA, and to negotiate a series of action-oriented outcome documents in the form of agreed conclusions and resolutions based on one of the issues highlighted in the PoA.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) was adopted alongside the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) in 1966, after the decision was made to separate human rights into two categories: (i) civil and political rights, and (ii) economic, social and cultural rights. The ICCPR addresses civil and political rights, including the right to life, freedom from religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights, and the right to due process and a fair trial. It is part of the International Bill of Human Rights along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The ICCPR is a legally binding document, and compliance to the convention is monitored by the United Nations Human Rights Committee. Countries that have ratified the ICCPR are expected to submit periodic reports detailing the situation of children’s rights in the country, as well as progress made towards the local implementation of the ICCPR.
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) was adopted alongside the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1966, after the decision was made to separate human rights into two categories: (i) civil and political rights, and (ii) economic, social and cultural rights. The ICESCR addresses different economic, social and cultural rights, including labour rights, the right to health, the right to education, and the right to an adequate standard of living. It is part of the International Bill of Human Rights along with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The ICESCR is a legally binding document, and compliance to the convention is monitored by the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (CESCR). Countries that have ratified the ICESCR are expected to submit periodic reports detailing the situation of children’s rights in the country, as well as progress made towards the local implementation of the ICESCR.
Intersectionality is a theoretical framework frequently used to explore overlapping (intersecting) social identities and systems of oppression, domination, and discrimination. According to this theoretical lens, to understand social problems like discrimination in access to services or the fulfillment of human rights, you need to look at how different biological, social, and cultural categories such as age, race, gender identity and expression, socio-economic status, geographical location, ability, sexual orientation, religion, caste, etc. interact (intersect) with each other on multiple and simultaneous levels to shape an individual’s experience and opportunities.
Take for example access to sexual and reproductive health services, if we look at the factors above a person who is in their thirties, wealthy, hetero-sexual, cis-gendered, and living in a city in Western Europe, will likely have an easier time accessing higher quality services than a young cis-gender gay male from a lower-socio-economic status living in a rural area of Uganda. In this situation we may talk about so-called “multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination”, the young man in Uganda may be discriminated against based on (i) sexual orientation, (ii) socio-economic status, and (iii) his geographical location.
“Intersex” is a general term used for a variety of conditions in which a person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn’t seem to fit the 'typical' presentation of the ‘male’ or ‘female’ biological sex. For example, a person might be born with the typical exterior anatomy of a ‘male’ (e.g. with a penis, testes etc.) as well as the typical interior anatomy of a ‘female’ (e.g. ovaries). A person may also be born with genitals that seem to be in-between the typical, ‘male’ and ‘female’ types, or with what is called ‘mosaic genetics’ whereby some of a person’s cells have XX chromosomes (typical ‘female’ chromosomes) and others are XY (typical ‘male’ chromosomes). Like the term gender, intersex is a socially constructed category that reflects real biological variation: there is a naturally occurring spectrum of sex anatomy that goes beyond the typically ‘male/female’ sex.